1) In behavioral studies with C. elegans, it has been observed that rol1 mutants coil in response to encounters with objects that touch their head or tail. In order to determine that rol1 was the causative gene for coiling, RNAi was used during C. elegans development to knock out the function of rol1 mutants and wildtype rol1. In both rol1 variants, knocking out expression of rol1, resulted in the coiling of the adult stages of C. elegans when poked in the head or tail, but also caused coiling as the result from general pressure changes, a behavior that was not observed in the rol1 mutants with a functioning rol1 gene. The scientists concluded that the gene rol1 has at least two pathways leading to the two behaviors and the rol1 mutant has one variable pathway compared to the wildtype, based on the evidence from this study.
Which of the following experimental method were used in this study? (choose all the correct answer)
a. Phylogenetic Analysis
b. Comparative Analysis
c. Mathematical Modeling
d. Genetic manipulation
e. Field or Laboratory Observations
2) What is the likelihood that offspring A gets a gene from her paternal great-grandfather, assuming paternity is certain in all mating pairs (In other words, do not factor in the paternity uncertainty term discussed in lecture). Write your answer as a decimal. If the decimal is longer than 4 places, please round to 4 places ( example 0.####).
3) My half sister and I make a pact that if she has more offspring than I do, I will help her take care of them. How many total offspring will she need to have in order for me to have the equivalent of 4 of my own children if I currently have only two children.
4) Match the following statements with their correct definition for a-f of Proximate Hypothesis/ Proximate Question/ Ultimate Question/ Ultimate Prediction/ Ultimate Hypothesis/ Proximate Prediction
a) Why would humans evolve to produce cannabis-like chemicals that suppress memory?
b) Whales migrate to lower latitudes each year to evade predation of their newly born offspring.
c) How does a sealion make its vocalization sounds?
d) If squirrels are discerning about what types of food they collect, they tend to not have enough food to last through the winter
e) If Sharks have malfunctioning ampullae of Lorenzini (electro-receptors on the head and snout) they are not responsive to electrical signals. The receptors do not fire and the shark is unaware of prey in the near vicinity, if the prey’s chemical signals are not sufficient to stimulate chemical receptors on the shark .
f) Canada Geese rely on thermal cues, visual landmarks, and magnetoreception to navigate to the same location each year during migration.
5) Which of the following is considered part of a focal organism’s environment? (choose all the correct answer)
a. rocks and abiotic substrate
b. related conspecifics
c. direct competitors and potential mates
d. plants and biotic substrate
e. weather and water