Island The Immune System

I’m working on a biology question and need an explanation and answer to help me learn.


1.Describe the nature of innate defenses in invertebrates and vertebrates.

2.Describe the steps of the inflammatory response and explain how they help to prevent the spread of disease.

3.Describe the specific nature of adaptive immune system responses. Define the terms adaptive immunity, antigen, antibody, lymphocytes, vaccination, vaccine, active immunity, and passive immunity.

4.Describe the structure and functions of the lymphatic system.

5.Describe the development and functions of B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. Define and distinguish between the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated immune response.

6.Describe the nature of antigens. Explain how an antigen and an antibody interact.

7.Describe the process of clonal selection. Compare the functions of effector cells and memory cells.

8.Compare a primary immune response to a secondary immune response.

9.Describe the specific structure of an antibody and relate its shape to its functions.

10. Describe four effector mechanisms of the humoral immune system. Explain how antibodies work with innate defenses to form a complete defense system.

11. Describe the uses of antibodies in medicine.

12. Describe the research testing the effectiveness of vaccines against HPV.

13. Describe the specific functions of helper T cells and how they interact with other cells.

14. Explain how cytotoxic T cells destroy infected body cells.

15. Explain how HIV infects cells, multiplies, and causes disease.

16. Explain why it has been difficult to develop a successful treatment for AIDS.

17. Explain how the immune system identifies the body’s own molecules and how this system complicates organ transplantations.

18. Describe how the malfunction or failure of the immune system can cause disease.

19. Explain how allergies occur and what causes anaphylactic shock.

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